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Sexual abuse is where children and young people are abused by adults (both male and

female) or other children who use them to meet their own sexual needs. This could include

full sexual intercourse, masturbation, oral sex, anal intercourse, kissing and sexual fondling.

Showing children pornographic material (books, videos, pictures) or taking pornographic

images of them are also forms of sexual abuse.

Sexual abusers groom children, protective adults and clubs/organisations in order to create

opportunities to abuse and reduce the likelihood of being reported.

Examples in sport may include coaching techniques involving physical contact with children

creating situations where sexual abuse can be disguised and may therefore go unnoticed.

The power and authority of, or dependence on, the coach if misused, may also lead to

abusive situations developing. Contacts made within sport and pursued e.g. through texts,

Facebook or Twitter have been used to groom children for abuse.

Child Sexual Exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or

group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or

young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity

(a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or

(b) for the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator.

The victim may have been sexually exploited even if the sexual activity appears consensual.

Child sexual exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur through

the use of technology.

Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional ill-treatment of a child so as to cause severe

and persistent adverse effects on the child's emotional development. It may involve

conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar

as they meet the needs of another person.

It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on

children or even the over protection of a child. It may involve causing children to feel

frightened or in danger by being constantly shouted at, threatened or taunted which may

make the child very nervous and withdrawn. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all

types of ill-treatment of a child.

Examples in sport may include children who are subjected to constant criticism,

name-calling, sarcasm, bullying, racism or pressure to perform to unrealistically high

expectations; or when their value or worth is dependent on sporting success or



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