Page 0048

Endnotes

1 "European Commission launches the EU Blockchain

Observatory and Forum" European Commission

press release (1 February 2018), available at: http://

europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-521_en.htm.

2 "EU Blockchain Roundtable paves the way for Europe to

lead in blockchain technologies" (20 November 2018),

available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/

news/eu-blockchain-roundtable-paves-way-europe-leadblockchain-technologies

3 French National Commission on Informatics and

Liberty (CNIL), "Blockchain and the GDPR: responsible

solutions regarding the presence of personal data", 24

September 2018, available at: https://www.cnil.fr/en/

node/24807.German Blockchain Federation (Blockchain

Bundesverband), "Blockchain, data protection and

the GDPR", 25 May 2018, available at: https://www.

bundesblock.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/GDPR_

Position_Paper_v1.0.pdf. EU Blockchain Observatory and

Forum, "Blockchain and the GDPR", 16 October 2018,

available at: https://www.eublockchainforum.eu/reports.

4 Gabrielle Orum Hernández, Why Blockchain Poses an

Unusual Challenge for GDPR Compliance, LAW.COM, 25

May 2018, available at: https://www.law.com/2018/05/25/

why-blockchain-poses-an-unusual-challenge-for-gdpr-co

mpliance/?slreturn=20181103145145; Tom Cox and

Andrew Solomon, Block chain: Is the GDPR out of date

already?, Lexology, 30 August 2017, available at: https://

www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=d4c0481a-c678-

4748-80cb-4ab917e66207.

5 EU Blockchain Roundtable paves the way for Europe to

lead in blockchain technologies" (20 November 2018),

available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/

news/eu-blockchain-roundtable-paves-way-europe-leadblockchain-technologies

6 EU Blockchain Observatory and Forum, "Blockchain and

the GDPR", 16 October 2018, available at: https://www.

eublockchainforum.eu/reports.

7 Article 9 of the GDPR lists the following special categories

of personal data: "data revealing racial or ethnic origin,

political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs,

or trade union membership, and the processing of

genetic data, biometric data for the purpose of uniquely

identifying a natural person, data concerning health

or data concerning a natural person's sex life or sexual

orientation".

8 GDPR Article 25.

9 GDPR Article 17(3)(b).

10 GDPR Article 17(3)(e).

11 The European Commission has to-date issued a finding

of adequacy in respect of: Andorra, Argentina, Canada

(partial), Faroe Islands, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Israel, Japan,

Jersey, New Zealand, Switzerland and Uruguay. Adequacy

talks are ongoing with South Korea.

12 The Article 29 Data Protection Working Party was

established under Article 29 of the Data Protection

Directive (Directive 95/46/EC), but has since been

replaced by the European Data Protection Board under

Article 68 of the GDPR.

13 Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, opinion

05/2014 on Anonymisation Techniques (adopted on 10

April 2014), available at: https://www.pdpjournals.com/

docs/88197.pdf.

14 Endorsement 1/2018 of the European Data Protection

Board dated 25 May 2018, available at: https://edpb.

europa.eu/news/news/2018/endorsement-gdpr-wp29-

guidelines-edpb_en.

15 German Blockchain Federation (Blockchain

Bundesverband), "Blockchain, data protection and

the GDPR", 25 May 2018, available at: https://www.

bundesblock.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/GDPR_

Position_Paper_v1.0.pdf.

16 UK Anonymisation Network, The Anonymisation

Decision-Making Framework, 2016, available at:

http://ukanon.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/theanonymisation-decision-making-framework.pdf.

17 EU Blockchain Observatory and Forum, "Blockchain and

the GDPR", 16 October 2018, available at: https://www.

eublockchainforum.eu/reports.

18 Id. This argument appears to be supported by the

European Parliament's Committee on Civil Liberties,

Justice and Home Affairs, which distinguishes between

data controllers and data processors in a blockchain

setting on the basis of whether a network member

uploads data onto the network. European Parliament

Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs,

opinion 2018/2085(INI) on Blockchain: A ForwardLooking

Trade Policy (adopted on 15 November 2018),

available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getdoc.

do?type=REPORT&reference=A8-2018-0407&format=XML

&language=EN#title3.

19 EU Blockchain Observatory and Forum, "Blockchain and

the GDPR", 16 October 2018, available at: https://www.

eublockchainforum.eu/reports.

20 CNIL, Blockchain and the GDPR: Solutions for a

responsible use of the blockchain in the context of

personal data, 6 November 2018, available at: https://

www.cnil.fr/en/blockchain-and-gdpr-solutions-responsibleuse-blockchain-context-personal-data.

EU Blockchain Observatory and Forum, "Blockchain and

the GDPR", 16 October 2018, available at: https://www.

eublockchainforum.eu/reports..

21 GDPR Article 28.

22 GDPR Article 26.

23 Id.

24 Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, 14 June

2017 Letter to ESMA, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/

newsroom/document.cfm?doc_id=45447.

25 GDPR Articles 13 and 14.

26 Id.

27 Id.

28 Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, opinion

05/2014 on Anonymisation Techniques (adopted on 10

April 2014), available at: https://www.pdpjournals.com/

docs/88197.pdf.

29 Id.

30 Id.

31 Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, opinion

05/2014 on Anonymisation Techniques (adopted on 10

April 2014), available at: https://www.pdpjournals.com/

docs/88197.pdf.

This view is not shared by the UK Anonymisation

Network, which has adopted a relative view of

anonymization-i.e., data can simultaneously be

anonymous data to one data controller and personal data

to another data controller depending on the individual

data controller's ability to identify the data. Regardless

of whether characterization as anonymous data is a

relative or absolute determination, the only way to ensure

personal data becomes anonymous data for all members

of a blockchain network under the deletion by encryption

technique is to obligate all members to delete their

keys. UK Anonymisation Network, The Anonymisation

Decision-Making Framework, 2016, available at:

http://ukanon.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/theanonymisation-decision-making-framework.pdf.

32 U.S. Patent No. 9,959,065 (filed Oct. 5, 2017). For more

discussion on the patent and editable blockchains,

please see: Accenture, Editing the Uneditable

Blockchain, available at: https://www.accenture.com/

t20160927T033514Z__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-33/

Accenture-Editing-Uneditable-Blockchain.pdf#zoom=50.

33 Id.

34 European Data Protection Supervisor Newsletter No.66,

January 2019, available at: https://edps.europa.eu/presspublications/publications/newsletters/newsletter-66_en.

35 Steve Saxox & Matt Stone, Container Shipping: The Next

50 Years, McKinsey & Company (October 2017). Available

at: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/

industries/travel%20transport%20and%20logistics/

our%20insights/how%20container%20shipping%20

could%20reinvent%20itself%20for%20the%20digital%20

age/container-shipping-the-next-50-years-103017.ashx.

36 Michael White, Digitizing Global Trade with Maersk and

IBM, IBM (16 January 2018). Available at: https://www.

ibm.com/blogs/blockchain/2018/01/digitizing-global-trademaersk-ibm/.

37 Steve Saxox & Matt Stone, Container Shipping: The Next

50 Years, McKinsey & Company (October 2017). Available

at: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/

industries/travel%20transport%20and%20logistics/

our%20insights/how%20container%20shipping%20

could%20reinvent%20itself%20for%20the%20digital%20

age/container-shipping-the-next-50-years-103017.ashx.

38 Id.

39 Michael White, Digitizing Global Trade with Maersk and

IBM, IBM (16 January 2018). Available at: https://www.

ibm.com/blogs/blockchain/2018/01/digitizing-global-trademaersk-ibm/.

40 Id.

41 Reuters, European Regulators: We're Not Ready for

New Privacy Law (8 May 2018), available at: https://

www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-privacy-analysis/

european-regulators-were-not-ready-for-new-privacy-lawidUSKBN1I915X.

42 European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties,

Justice and Home Affairs, opinion 2018/2085(INI) on

Blockchain: A Forward-Looking Trade Policy (adopted on

15 November 2018), available at: http://www.europarl.

europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=REPORT&reference=A8-

2018-0407&format=XML&language=EN#title3.

46 I GDPR and the Blockchain

Index

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