The Three Rs (3Rs)
The Three Rs are principles of humane experimental technique that were first set out by Russell and Burch in
1959. They are now widely accepted within the international scientific community and in associated legislation
and guidelines, as a means of avoiding or reducing animal use and suffering and helping to improve the quality
Replacement: using methods or strategies that replace or avoid the use of animals in research and testing.
Reduction: reducing the number of animals used to achieve the scientific objectives, for example by improving
experimental design and statistical analyses.
Refinement: refining scientific procedures and other factors affecting animals (for example, transport, housing,
restraint) to reduce suffering and improve the animals" welfare at every stage of their lives.
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