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programmes.

While the NCDs, including cancer, are becoming major

public health issues especially in middle-income countries,

WHO technical cooperation with these countries is yet to

adequately address the challenges of NCDs, including

cancer. The formulation of CCS can provide an opportunity

to make NCDs a priority for WHO through sound health

situation analysis that would reflect the burden of disease

related to cancer. The commitment of the UN system,

including the joint letter from the WHO Director-General

and UNDP Administrator to UN Resident Coordinators and

WHO Representatives encouraging them to advocate for

NCDs and to incorporate NCDs into United Nations

Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) would

enable the integration of national cancer control plan into

the work of the UN system with dedicated financial and

technical resources.

WHO's leadership at country level is particularly

important to ensure that health is reflected in the

development agenda. This covers the policy, management,

staff development and administrative services that increase

the effectiveness of WHO offices in countries, areas and

territories, and, more broadly, that shape WHO's

cooperation with countries in which WHO has no physical

presence. In practice, this means regularly updating the

processes and tools needed for developing CCS and, in

particular, introducing a much sharper focus on the areas of

collaboration so that they play a greater role in future

priority setting. In all countries, the CCS is closely aligned

with national health policies, strategies and plans; and,

where appropriate, its key components are reflected in the

United Nations Development Assistance Framework to

which all UN agencies contribute. This is complemented by

the UN Interagency Taskforce on NCDs (16) which brings

together all UN agencies in order to contribute to the

implementation of the NCD action plan with its priority

actions in order to achieve the set of voluntary targets.

The WHO country office takes the lead (within the

Secretariat there are three levels of the organization: HQ,

regional and country offices) in developing and negotiating a

CCS; managing technical cooperation; implementing and

monitoring international commitments, conventions and

legal instruments; and in emergency and crisis response.

Conclusion

The NCCP planning process used by WHO is fully in line with

the WHO generic CCS strategy and planning templates.

Situation analysis, stakeholder involvement, governmental

endorsement of a strategy document and a well-defined

CANCER CONTROL PLANNING

CANCER CONTROL 2015 17

is aimed at supporting the national cancer control planning

process by at least one country mission during which a

delegation of experts meets with national key stakeholders

and provides advice in priority setting and planning (12). The

US National Cancer Institute also provides support for

cancer control planning (13).

The WHO Country Cooperation Strategy (CCS)

The CCS provides a framework for translating WHO's

normative work into national health planning, fully aligning

the priorities identified with national health priorities by

means of a well-defined process which follows a set of key

guiding principles and values. Among those, the principle of

country ownership of the planning process and its outcome

is of paramount importance. CCS therefore requires an

alignment of the planning with national priorities and builds

upon national health systems and supports existing plans

and strategies. The CCS not only relates to national priority

setting and budget allocation but also to WHO's general

programme of work which sets WHO's global leadership

priorities and deliverables of which NCDs are part.

At the country level, WHO, under the leadership of

country office team, formulates the CCS which is WHO's key

instrument to guide its work in and with a country, in support

of the country's national health policy, strategy or plan. A set

of planning steps include situation analysis, stakeholder

involvement and the formulation and national endorsement

of a CCS document. It is the main process for harmonizing

WHO's collaboration in countries, with that of other UN

bodies and with development partners. The CCS process is a

powerful tool for fostering strategic policy dialogue among

key stakeholders in countries, territories and regions and for

positioning health at the centre of the development agenda.

The CCS priorities, which are aligned with national health

priorities, as well as WHO's Program Budget outputs and

deliverables, are the basis for developing a biennial work

plan at country level. Where NCDs, especially the

prevention and control of cancer, are identified as a CCS

priority or country level priority in the biennial Programme

Budget, WHO engages in technical collaboration with the

country and provides the necessary technical support. The

existing CCS is published on the WHO website (15). Table 1

gives an overview of the health topics included in the

existing 143 CCS documents according to a WHO internal

analysis. Cancer control plans are not specifically listed

however, but found in NCD and cancer prevention relevant

programmes such as FCTC and health promotion and

lifestyle. Among the 143 CCS, more than half have FCTC

implementation included and 94% health lifestyle-related

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