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REGIONAL INITIATIVES

CANCER CONTROL 2014 133

Le-Ni Kang is a PhD candidate at the Cancer Hospital of the

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union

Medical College, Beijing, China. She works on cancer screening

and prevention in rural China, especially on the population

evaluation of new screening technologies.

Professor You-Lin Qiao is Director of the Department of Cancer

Epidemiology at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy

of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing,

China and Deputy Director of the National Expert Committee

for Cancer Screening and Prevention in China. He coordinates a

large number of cancer early detection studies in China and has

contributed to the development of validation for rapid,

accurate and affordable HPV tests for early detection of

cervical neoplasia. His research efforts have led to the rolling

out of large population-based breast and cervical screening

programmes in China. He received 2011 WHO/IARC

Medal of Honor.

Table 2: The primary results of cancer early detection and treatment projects in rural China (2012-2013)17

Cancer Types No of screenings Detection rate (%) Early detection rate† (%) Treatment rate (%)

Upper gastrointestinal cancer 189,329 1.6 72.4 84.6

Colorectal cancer 40,510 6.2 91.9 91.5

Liver cancer 14,964 0.7 55.6 91.7

Nasopharyngeal cancer 9,046 0.5 64.4 100.0

Lung cancer 4,845 1.4 45.6 75.0

Total 258,694 2.2 80.2 87.8

† Early detection rate = Number of early cases detected / Number of total cases detected *100%.

for nasopharyngeal cancer and 3 for lung cancer in rural

areas. From the latest Annual Report,17 the early detection

rate ranged from 45.6% for lung cancer to 91.9% for

colorectal cancer; and the treatment rate ranged from 75%

for lung cancer to 100% for nasopharyngeal cancer (Table 2).

In addition, this project also provided training for a group of

technicians and clinicians who work in primary health care

institutions. This project has been introduced into urban

areas in China from 2012 and targets screening for lung

cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, upper

gastrointestinal cancer and liver cancer.

With more than one fifth of the world's population, as well

as the increasing cancer burden in the contemporary Chinese

population, China's fight against cancer will have a global

impact on human health. The experience in cancer prevention

and control in China will also help other low- and middleincome countries, which account for 60% of the world cancer

burden, to fight against cancer. l

References

1. Zhao P, Dai M, Chen W, Li N. Cancer trends in China. Japanese Journal of Clinical

Oncology 2010; 40(4):281-285.

2. National Cancer Center, Disease Prevention and Control Bureau of Ministry of Health.

Chinese cancer registry annual report. Military Medical Science Press, Beijing, 2012. (in

Chinese)

3. Chen W, Zheng R, Zeng H, Zhang S, Li N,Zou X, et al. Trend analysis and prediction of

cancer incidence in China. Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine 2012; 46(7):581-586.

(in Chinese)

4. Wang JB, Jiang Y, Liang H, et al. Attributable causes of cancer in China. Ann Oncol 2012;

23(11):2983-2989.

5. WHO Technical Advisory Group. Cancer control: knowledge into action: WHO guide for

effective programs. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2006.

6. Wen C. China's plans to curb cervical cancer. Lancet Oncology 2005; 6(3):139-141.

7. Editorial. Women's health in rural China. Lancet 2009; 374(9687):358.

8. Qiao YL. Perspective of cervical cancer prevention and control in developing countries

and areas. Chinese Journal of Cancer 2010; 29(1):1-3. (in Chinese)

9. Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson HW, Killackey M, Kulasingam SL, Cain J, et al. American

Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American

Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early

detection of cervical cancer. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2012; 62(3):147-172.

10. Franceschi S, Denny L, Irwin WL, Jeronimo J, Lopalco PL, Monsonego J, et al. Eurogin

2010 roadmap on cervical cancer prevention. International Journal of Cancer 2011;

128(12):2765-2774.

11. Zhao FH, Lin MJ, Chen F, Hu SY, Zhang R, Belinson JL, et al. Performance of high-risk

human papillomavirus DNA testing as a primary screen for cervical cancer: a pooled

analysis of individual patient data from 17 population-based studies from China.

Lancet Oncology 2010; 11(12):1160-1171.

12. Qiao YL, Sellors JW, Eder PS, Bao YP, Lim JM, Zhao FH, et al. A new HPV-DNA test

for cervical-cancer screening in developing regions: a cross-sectional study of

clinical accuracy in rural China. Lancet Oncology 2008; 9(10):929-936.

13. Gage JC, Ajenifuja KO, Wentzensen N, Adepiti AC, Stoler M, Eder PS, et al.

Effectiveness of a simple rapid human papillomavirus DNA test in rural Nigeria.

International Journal of Cancer 2012; 131(12):2903-2909.

14. Trope LA, Chumworathayi B, Blumenthal PD. Feasibility of community-based

careHPV for cervical cancer prevention in rural Thailand. Journal of Lower Genital

Tract Disease 2013;17(3):315-319.

15. Lorenzi AT, Fregnani JH, Possati-Resende JC, Neto CS, Villa LL, Longatto-Filho A.

Self-collection for high-risk HPV detection in Brazilian women using the

careHPVTM test. Gynecologic Oncology 2013;131(1):131-134.

16. Zhao FH, Lewkowitz AK, Chen F, Lin MJ, Hu SY, Zhang X, et al. Pooled analysis of a

self-sampling HPV DNA Test as a cervical cancer primary screening method. Journal

of the National Cancer Institute 2012; 104(3):178-188.

17. National Health and Family Planning Commission and Cancer Foundation of China.

2012-2013 Annual Report on cancer early detection and treatment project (in rural

areas). Beijing, 2013. (in Chinese).

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