Table 1: Summary of the conclusions from WCRF/AICR Second Expert Report and CUP Physical activity of all types: occupational,
household, transport and recreational.
Much of the evidence reviewed grouped
Cancer site Decreases risk Increases risk colon cancer and rectal cancer together as
Colorectum Physical activity1, 2 Red meat3, 4 “colorectal” cancer. The Panel judges that
the evidence is stronger for colon than for
Foods containing dietary fibre5 Processed meat4, 6 rectum.
Garlic7 Alcoholic drinks The term “red meat” refers to beef, pork,
lamb, and goat from domesticated animals.
Diets high in calcium8 Body fatness 4
Although red and processed meats contain
Abdominal fatness iron, the general category of “foods
containing iron” comprises many other
Adult-attained height9 foods, including those of plant origin.
Includes both foods naturally containing
the constituent and foods that have had
Breast (premenopause) Lactation Alcoholic drinks the constituent added.
Body fatness Adult-attained height9 The term “processed meat” refers to meats
preserved by smoking, curing, or salting, or
Greater birth weight addition of chemical preservatives.
Judgments on vegetables and fruits do not
include those preserved by salting and/or
Breast Lactation Alcoholic drinks pickling.
(postmenopause) Physical activity1 Body fatness Evidence is from milk and studies using
supplements for colorectum.
Abdominal fatness 9
Greater adult attained height is unlikely
Adult weight gain directly to modify the risk of cancer. It is a
marker for genetic, environmental,
Adult-attained height9 hormonal and also nutritional factors
affecting growth during the period from
preconception to completion of linear
Endometrium Physical activity1 Body fatness growth.
Abdominal fatness Mostly contained in tomatoes and tomato
products. Also fruits such as grapefruit,
watermelon, guava, and apricot.
Ovary Adult-attained height9 Effect only apparent at high calcium
intakes (around 1.5 g/day or more).
Evidence for milk and dairy products (but
Prostate Foods containing lycopene5, 10 Diets high in calcium8, 11 not calcium) was derived only from
countries with populations that have high
Foods containing selenium5, 12 calcium and dairy consumption.
Includes evidence from supplements.
The International Agency for Research on
Kidney Body fatness Cancer has graded arsenic and arsenic
compounds as Class 1 carcinogens. The
grading for this entry applies specifically to
Pancreas Foods containing folate5 Body fatness inorganic arsenic in drinking water.
Abdominal fatness The evidence is derived from studies using
supplements for lung.
Adult-attained height9 15
“Salt” here means total salt consumption,
from processed foods, including salty and
salted foods, and also salt added in
Lung Fruits7 Arsenic in drinking water13 cooking and at the table.
Beta-carotene14 For oesophageal adenocarcinomas only.
As drunk traditionally in parts of South
America, scalding hot through a metal
Stomach Non-starchy vegetables7 Salt, salted and salty foods15 straw. Any increased risk of cancer is
7 judged to be caused by epithelial damage
Allium vegetables resulting from the heat, and not by the
Fruits7 herb itself.
This style of preparation is characterised
by treatment with less salt than typically
Oesophagus Non-starchy vegetables7 Alcoholic drinks used, and fermentation during the drying
process due to relatively high outdoor
Fruits7 Body fatness16 temperature and moisture levels. This
Maté17 conclusion does not apply to fish prepared
(or salted) by other means.
Directly and indirectly, through the
Mouth, pharynx, larynx Non-starchy vegetables7 Alcoholic drinks formation of gallstones.
Foods that may be contaminated with
Fruits7 aflatoxins include cereals (grains), and also
pulses (legumes), seeds, nuts, and some
vegetables and fruits.
Nasopharynx Cantonese-style salted fish18 21
Cirrhosis is an essential precursor of liver
cancer caused by alcohol. The
International Agency for Research on
Gallbladder Body fatness19 Cancer has graded alcohol as a Class 1
carcinogen for liver cancer. Alcohol alone
only causes cirrhosis in the presence of
Liver Aflatoxins20 other susceptibility factors.
Skin Arsenic in drinking water13
46 CANCER CONTROL 2013
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